Leopard Lily

Photo courtesy Kristen Hopper


Our readers can’t seem to get enough of the Leopard Lily (Lilium pardalinum), based on comments and blog traffic. So, here is another bloom shot offered by Kristen Hopper of Oaktown Native Plant Nursery.
She writes that this is “…the welcomed sight of the Lilium pardalinum in bloom. This plant is native to stream banks in many parts of our lovely state. It is always a joy to come upon a stream-side patch in full bloom. The leopard lily also does well under normal garden conditions in dappled shade. The bulbs will increase over time forming a colony.”
I am in San Diego and envious of this Norther California beauty. In the past, I’ve tried growing it in a pot (knowing full well it is not of my local plant community by any stretch of the definition) because I love those colors. But I never had any luck with it, so maybe it is just as well that I let this one go and just admire it from afar.

f9f35a7b-226d-499b-a23f-8f730413d232One of our online community members in the Gardening With Natives Yahoo group wrote in to tell us about the efforts of Mountain View, which is part of the “Tree City USA” program to gather public input about urban trees.

Mountain View is conducting a tree survey until the end of July.  ​EVERYONE is welcome to participate and you need not be Mountain View resident.
The City of Mountain View asks that we complete this short survey to help them understand how people view Mountain View’s community trees, and to identify which community forest management services are most important.

According to the survey, “Trees are vital assets that provide significant benefits to the community. The City of Mountain View’s community urban forest consists of approximately 26,000 trees valued at more than $85.6 million. With proper care, the value and benefits will increase over time. In order to manage this valuable resource, sustainable, long-term strategic planning is needed. As responsible stewards of the community’s urban forest, the City is working with a consultant to develop a long-term Community Tree Master Plan. The Plan provides for a healthy and thriving urban forest through proper care, cost efficient maintenance, tree preservation guidelines, canopy enhancement, reforestation, habitat preservation, and promotion of community forest benefits.”

So, please do go check this out and, everywhere you can, mention native trees.



Kay Stewart

Kay Stewart, active San Diego Chapter member and Landscape Architect

July 22, 2014

Ann Prichard, Pesticide Registration Branch Chief
Department of Pesticide Regulation
State of California

Dear Ms. Prichard,

I am writing to you as a concerned citizen of California about neonicotinoid
pesticides. I earned a BA in biology from UC Riverside and an MA in biology
from CSU Fresno in the 1960-s and -70’s. I was a biological research tech
for about fifteen years, then I switched gears and graduated from University
of Oregon with a second bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture. I have
been a CA registered landscape architect since 1989 in private practice.

I am writing to ask you to take action to terminate the studies that have
been dragging on for five years about California’s use of neonicotinoid
pesticides and their impact on honeybees. Please require very speedy
publication of its findings. If the study is unbiased and comprehensive, I
expect the Department of Pesticide Regulation to conclude that these
pesticides should be restricted greatly or outright banned. The following
explains why I think that should be the outcome.

I have been following the honeybee colony collapse syndrome issue since it
surfaced around 2007. Most recently, studies published in 2014 have now
found conclusive correlations between bird population declines where
neonicotinoid pesticides have built up in watersheds. The relationship is
caused by the pesticides having persisted long enough to kill many species
of insects. The destruction of insects harms all species of birds (even
fruit and seed-eating birds) because terrestrial bird nestlings require the
protein found in insects (or other sources) to reach maturity.

I know that other factors are involved in honeybee colony mortality: poor
feeding of hives over winter, as well as starvation in the very agricultural
fields where they are brought to pollinate crops, when there are too many
bees for the crop to feed, and there are no supplemental flowering plants in
fallow land thatthey could feed on, due to excessive use of glyphosate and
other herbicides. I know about a couple of diseases that are almost epidemic
in some areas, and parasites, especially the Varroa mite.

Neonicotinoid manufacturers misdirect our attention to Australia where the
Varroa mite is not found, where neonicotinoids are in use, and where colony
collapse disorder has not been found. However, I have not seen this as a
serious scientific paper. I wonder, are Australian bees treated the same as
US bees (transported long distances to pollinate thousands of acres of a
single species of plant, with no other sources of nectar or pollen, for
instance)? Are hedgerows or wildlands left for supplemental pollen sources
to carry hives over when crops aren’t flowering sufficiently? Have
neonicotinoids been used as long there as in Europe and the US with the
subsequent buildup in the environment? Are Australian crops also treated
with glyphosate as extensively as American crops? Is it possible that some
plants in Australia give honeybees more resistance to stress and they can
recover from  nerve damage caused by neonics? What is the level of homeowner
use of neonics? In short, is Australia’s apiculture and neonicotinoid
exposure really comparable to the US and Europe to the extent that the
Varroa mite is truly the only factor in their better survival?

Leaving those questions aside, I think evidence is available to conclude
that neonicotinoids are a key factor in bee declines in the US, and in
California in particular.

1. Research has proven that neonicotinoid pesticides are killing large
numbers of many other species of insects including bumblebees, insects that
are NOT infested by Varroa mites.

2. Studies found that colonies of honeybees that had Varroa mite infestation
had much greater mortality if the bees also tested positive for
neonicotinoid exposure, far below the agency threshold listed for acute

3. Please also consider this. I may not remember this correctly, but if I
did, it is significant. In 2007 when I initially started to study this, I
read the 1980’s era lab studies conducted for Bayer’s product (the original
neonicotinoid) on bee mortality. Every research cycle for acute exposure,
they reduced the exposure level to test, and at each lower level, bees died,
not 50% for the LD50, but enough to count. These were lab studies, not where
bees are working as part of a hive with all those stresses.  I recall that
the studies did not reach a point where mortality didn’t occur. Researchers
never found a level at which bees were not harmed. They just stopped
studying it, and the product was approved and in use by around 1990.

I recommended Bayer’s product imidacloprid in the 1990’s when the lerp
psyllid was swarming and harming Syzygium (= Eugenia) hedges in San Diego. I
recommended it in part because the label said it was not harmful to bees,
vs. Sevin and some other potent insecticides that were known bee killers.
Now I am sad and angry because I am pretty damn sure that I was responsible
for killing a lot of bees, and wild birds, as well as other insects that are
critical to the functioning of the entire California natural ecosystem, and
for pollinating our crops.

I strongly urge you to complete the long delayed study of neonicotinoids
being conducted by your Department. In the process I hope the Department
will conclude it is time to severely reduce their use, so by reducing their
harm, honeybees and other insect pollinators stand a better chance of
surviving and performing all their ecosystem services, while we devise a way
to protect them from Varroa mites.

The corporations that sell these pesticides have made a lot of money, so
they will undoubtedly protest, using all their wealth as a weapon against
this. Farmers whose crops have been protected by use of neonicotinoids may
have lower yields, and that may translate into higher prices, so consumers
may be affected. Big tobacco corporations which have provided the feedstock
for neonicotinoids will lose money. But just as people finally reduced
tobacco consumption in cigarettes because tobacco was killing people, we
need to stop killing Earth’s other creatures – and hurting ourselves in the
process – even if we have to pay some more to make it happen.

Maybe there is a silver lining: abandoned tobacco cropland could make great
restoration sites for the wide variety of plants that would help restore
insects and birds.

I hope for a reply from your office.

Kay Stewart, CA Landscape Architect # 2967
2171 India Street Suite A San Diego CA 92101


This is a wonderful effort on Kay’s part and you, too, can write something similar, using the information above. Her business email address, if you want the full text from her or wish to comment or ask questions is info@kaylarch.com




Mexican Feather Grass

Photo courtesy Joan Bockman


My buddy, Joan Bockman, of the Buena Vista Native Plant Club in Oceanside, has been working to help nurseries stop selling Mexican Feather Grass -

Nasella (formerly Stipa) tenuissima – an invasive that is used frequently in Southern California. She sent me this picture a while ago – because it illustrates the crucial problem: seeds get windblown and rapidly take hold in areas where they were not intended.

This planting area to the far side of the sidewalk was intentionally landscaped with a border of the grass. And you can see how it rapidly colonized the near side of the walkway.

Talk this up to your friends and gardeners you know: there are so many great alternatives to this attractive, but invasive plant.

PlantRight is running a campaign right now about this issue – and they have some ways you can help on a larger scale to ease this plant out of the garden scene here.





Arne Johanson

Arne Johanson, from the San Diego area, has been an active “weed-whacker” – last year he was one of the San Diego area “Cox Conserves Heroes finalists.”

When Arne Johanson retired from project managing large software installations, he had two goals: get away from the keyboard and be around kids. He has met both of those goals in the Greater Rancho Bernardo open spaces.

That one man could do so much: it is staggering! Arne Johanson is one of my heroes. For years he has been doing incredibly important work with very little fanfare. Arne is so modest, in fact, that few know of the significant contributions he is making to the health of our local ecology.

As he said recently, “ With very little money we are bringing back all kinds of wildlife. When the Gnatcatcher, Least Bell’s Vireos, and Harrier Hawks show up, then I know that the right things are being done.” I’ll write more about his projects in the future. For now, here are some of his thoughts on native plants and fire risk:

Fire prevention is the number one reason I give people for using native plants in open space. For a garden it can be similar. The advantage of some native plants is that they retain moisture. The state fire consortium at UC Riverside has shown that retained plant moisture is the best indicator of fire resistance in vegetation. There are caveats.

Dead or dormant vegetative matter poses fire risk and should be removed from within 100′ of structures in fire prone areas (say anywhere in the western US). Many non-native species appear to be safe but are anything but. Some examples:

Ice plant has succulent leaf structures. However, the green growth overrides dead material which acts as a fuse when ignited by embers.

  • Many other ground covers help spread fire, such as ivy or Myoporum.
  • Many palms are little more than torches in wildfire conditions (fire safer exceptions are the self shedding palms with smooth trunks like the King Palm).
  • Confers native or non-native are considered fire risks.
  • Blue Gum and Red Gum Eucalyptus are considered fire risks at all times.
  • Acacia pose a fire risk from dry leaves and dead twigs. The growth habit results in a fire ladder.
  • Any vegetation should be kept away from buildings.
  • All vegetation should be spaced in such a way that fire will not spread.

While some native species are relatively fire-safe, some should be avoided. Buckwheat and sage brush are examples of plants with small leaves that are easily ignited. Lemonade Berry and Sugar Bush are examples of particularly fire resistant plants with thick leathery leaves.

Brendan Monroe New York Times

illustration by Brendan Monroe from the New York Times Letters to the editor page

Daniel Fink, longtime Theodore Payne Foundation supporter and past board member, wrote a short and snappy letter to the editor of the New York Times which was published the other day.

I don’t read the New York Times, but one of my old technology buddies does get it, spotted the mention of native plants, and passed on the link to me. Thanks, Kevin!

The gist of the Times article was that we weren’t conserving as well as we could under voluntary rules. Here is the link to the full article: “Forceful Steps Amid a Severe Drought” (news article, Jan. 16).

And Daniel’s response was, in part, “…developed land in California should be planted with native plants appropriate to each of the many soil zones and climate conditions in our large and varied state.”

Yes, please.




Courtesy Suzanne Schettler: Mormon Metalmark (Apodemia mormo) on Telegraph Weed (Heterotheca grandiflora)

Linda Brodman has invited me to speak at the Santa Cruz Chapter‘s monthly meeting and I’m really looking forward to it. I’ve got lots of Banana Slugs in the family so: love being near their alma mater. But even better, there are lots of great CNPSers that I can hardly wait to see. And the Arboretum, if I get there early enough.

I’ll be talking about how we are getting our message about native plant gardening out to the wider community: what messages are resonating, what images stick in our collective consciousness. And, of course, I’ll be showing pictures of beautiful gardens. If you are nearby, please stop in.

General Meeting
July 14
Meeting 7:30 pm
UCSC Arboretum Horticulture Building
Santa Cruz






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